Social, gender and intergenerational inequalities.

• Gender inequalities, social inequalities and inter-generational inequalities

Life courses differ depending on whether a person is male or female, manual worker or manager, whether they live in southern or northern Europe, or elsewhere. The forms in which solidarity is expressed differ likewise. A "generation effect" also contributes to the construction of inequalities between individuals. iPOPs’ second scientific strand will show the importance of these inequalities in the interactions between individuals, families and societies.
Demography has always regarded gender as one of its basic variables and has sought to describe the differences between men and women in numerous aspects of life (migration, matrimonial behaviour, mortality etc.). But it is vital to take account of gender relations in a more systematical manner to reveal the extent of certain inequalities and the power relations they imply. It is not enough to compare men and women as if they were independent entities. iPOPs will conduct a relational and structural analysis, capturing the extent to which their behaviours and representations are shaped by the negotiations, hierarchies, conflicts and constraints resulting from asymmetrical power relations and unequal social positions between men and women.

Using questions relating to the fight against AIDS, demographers can re-examine the effective forms of conjugality that exist in contemporary societies. Moreover, the question of gender imbalance is assuming an alarming demographic dimension in certain Asian countries affected by a surplus of male births. Beyond cultural specificities, the quest for understanding must focus primarily on international comparisons based on tools for sociodemographic analysis of patriarchal systems.

Special attention will also be paid to the influence of social environment and migratory origin in the construction of inequalities, particularly as regards health. In a time of economic crisis, it seems ever more necessary to deepen the analysis of the causes and mechanisms of these inequalities, focusing more on the social determinants of health than on diseases themselves. iPOPs will particularly focus on the link between occupational and family trajectories and health (including the onset of dependence). The life course aspects of health will be a main focus; analyses will be enriched by using the instruments and approaches of health economics.